Deep brain stimulation

Deep brain stimulation

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) involves implanting electrodes within certain areas of the brain. These electrodes produce electrical impulses that regulate abnormal impulses. Or the electrical impulses can affect certain cells and chemicals within the brain.

The amount of stimulation in deep brain stimulation is controlled by a pacemaker-like device placed under the skin in your upper chest. A wire that travels under your skin connects this device to the electrodes in your brain.

Deep brain stimulation is commonly used to treat a number of conditions, such as:

  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Essential tremor
  • Dystonia
  • Epilepsy
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Deep brain stimulation is also being studied as a potential treatment for:

  • Tourette syndrome
  • Huntington’s disease and chorea
  • Chronic pain
  • Cluster headache

Why it’s done

Deep brain stimulation is an established treatment for people with movement disorders, such as essential tremor, Parkinson’s disease and dystonia, and psychiatric conditions, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder. It’s also approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration to reduce seizures in difficult-to-treat epilepsy.

This treatment is reserved for people whose symptoms aren’t controlled with medications.

RisksSurgery risks

Deep brain stimulation involves creating small holes in the skull to implant the electrodes into the brain tissue as well as performing surgery to implant the device that contains the batteries under the skin in the chest. Complications of surgery may include:

  • Misplacement of leads
  • Bleeding in the brain
  • Stroke
  • Infection
  • Breathing problems
  • Nausea
  • Heart problems
  • Seizure
  • Seizure
  • Infection
  • Headache
  • Confusion
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Stroke
  • Hardware complications, such as an eroded lead wire
  • Temporary pain and swelling at the implantation site

A few weeks after the surgery, the device will be turned on and the process of finding the best settings for you begins. Some settings may cause side effects, but these often improve with further adjustments of your device. Because there have been infrequent reports that the DBS therapy affects the movements needed for swimming, the Food and Drug Administration recommends consulting with your doctor and taking water safety precautions before swimming.

  • Numbness or tingling sensations
  • Muscle tightness of the face or arm
  • Speech problems
  • Balance problems
  • Light-headedness
  • Vision problems, such as double vision
  • Unwanted mood changes, such as anger and depression

How you prepare

Deep brain stimulation is a serious and potentially risky procedure. Even if you might be eligible for deep brain stimulation, you and your doctors must carefully weigh the risks and potential benefits of the procedure.

Before surgery, you’ll likely need medical tests to make sure that deep brain stimulation is a safe and appropriate option for you. You may also need brain-imaging studies, such as an MRI, before the surgery. These studies help to map the areas of your brain that will have the electrodes implanted.

What you can expectDuring the surgery

  • Brain surgery. For the brain surgery portion, your care team fits you with a special head frame to keep your head still during the procedure (stereotactic head frame). Then, team members use neuroimaging (brain MRI or CT) to map your brain and identify the area in your brain where they’ll place the electrodes.

In most cases, the electrodes will be placed while you’re awake and alert. This is to be sure the effects of stimulation can be tested fully. If you’re awake for surgery, you’ll be given a local aesthetic to numb your scalp before the procedure, but you won’t need an aesthetic in your brain itself because the brain has no pain receptors. In some cases, surgery can be done under general anaesthesia so that you’ll be unconscious.

Your surgeon implants a thin wire lead with a number of contacts (electrodes) at the tips into a specific area of your brain. Or one lead is implanted into each side of the brain (for a total of two leads). A wire runs under your skin to a pulse generator (neurostimulator) implanted near your collarbone.

During surgery, both the neurologist and the surgeon carefully monitor your brain to help ensure correct electrode placement.

  • Chest wall surgery. During the second portion of the surgery, the surgeon implants the part of the device that contains the batteries (pulse generator) under the skin in your chest, near your collarbone.

General anesthesia is used during this procedure. Wires from the brain electrodes are placed under your skin and guided down to the battery-operated pulse generator.

The generator is programmed to send continuous electrical pulses to your brain. You control the generator, and you can turn it on or off using a special remote control.

After the procedure

A few weeks after surgery, the pulse generator in your chest is activated in your doctor’s office. The doctor can easily program your pulse generator from outside your body using a special remote control. The amount of stimulation is customized to your condition, and may take as long as four to six months to find the optimal setting. Stimulation may be constant, 24 hours a day, or your doctor may advise you to turn your pulse generator off at night and back on in the morning, depending on your condition. You can turn stimulation on and off with a special remote control that you’ll take home with you. In some cases, your doctor may program the pulse generator to let you make minor adjustments at home.

The battery life of your generator varies with usage and settings. When the battery needs to be replaced, your surgeon will replace the generator during an outpatient procedure.

Results

Deep brain stimulation won’t cure your disease, but it may help lesser your symptoms. If deep brain stimulation works, your symptoms will improve significantly, but they usually don’t go away completely. In some cases, medications may still be needed for certain conditions.

Kidney Transplant in India

Kidney Transplant in India

Did you realize that India is just second to the USA in the quantity of kidney transplants? More than 200,000 patients get kidney transplants in India consistently. With regards to the nature of treatment and the costs in question, India is a favored clinical travel industry goal for patients from around the globe. Indian medical clinics and specialists approach better innovation and cutting edge hardware than a large number of their European partners. It is simply because of this that the achievement rate for kidney transplants in India remains at 85-90%.

What is kidney transplantation? 

Patients experiencing an end-stage kidney disappointment require another kidney to be transplanted for the working of the body. Kidneys work to expel overabundance liquids and waste from the circulatory system. At the point when the kidneys quit working appropriately, they quit sifting the waste materials, which can prompt an expansion in the measure of harmful liquids and waste in the body. In such cases, just a kidney transplant stays a choice. Despite the fact that our body has two kidneys, it can work sufficiently on even one of them. In that capacity, just a single kidney is required to supplant two non-working kidneys. 

What are the prerequisites for kidney transplantation? 

Any patient experiencing end-stage renal sickness (ESRD) is a possible contender for a kidney transplant. Nonetheless, all up-and-comers are checked for sufficient heart-lung work, and ought not be experiencing other ailments which seriously limit future. Additionally, post-medical procedure care with long lasting drug requires a guarantee to consistently registration with the specialist. 

When is kidney transplant not suggested? 

For patients experiencing contaminations like TB or osteomyelitis; heart, lung, or liver infections; history of malignancy; dynamic instance of hepatitis; other perilous maladies; and the individuals who may confront trouble taking drugs a few times every day for the remainder of their lives. 

Which tests are directed for assessment of the patient? 

The transplant place endorses various tests to assess the case, a portion of these are: 

  • Tissue and blood classification testing 
  • Blood tests 
  • Skin Tests 
  • Heart tests like EKG, reverberation, and so forth. 

Why Choose India for Kidney transplant? 

The emergency clinics in India are worked to world-class norms, however they likewise consider an enormous number of individuals visiting for clinical the travel industry. Accordingly, they take extraordinary consideration in giving all offices to the patient and the overseer – from accessibility of worldwide cooking in the medical clinic cafeterias to remote trade counters and dependant stay offices, they are completely arranged. 

Indian specialists and clinical staff are probably the best on the planet. They have the basic capabilities required for giving treatment offices to conditions concerning their particular specialities that assist them with sticking to the universal gauges. A large number of the main specialists in India routinely counsel and help with medical procedures in US and Europe through video joins. Renal transplant is a complex surgery which needs very talented specialists and access to most recent innovation. Indian specialists and medical clinics are well prepared for this. 

What is the sit tight an ideal opportunity for Kidney transplant in India? 

India follows a severe method for organ transplants. Worldwide patients need to go with a kidney benefactor to India, who ought to be a blood relative or life partner. 

In that capacity, the hang tight an ideal opportunity for booking a kidney transplant medical procedure isn’t guaranteed in various days when all is said in done, as it might fluctuate contingent upon the state of the patient. In any case, when a case has been assessed, our group can decide the methodology and give you an expected time span. 

What is the span of the stay in India post renal transplantation medical procedure? 

When the patient has experienced an effective kidney transplant, the specialists will screen their condition in the medical clinic for a few days. Post which, they will counsel the patient to release from the medical clinic with close checking for the following scarcely any weeks. At the point when the working specialists are completely happy with the advancement, they will tell you it’s protected to go back.

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