Leukemia Treatment

Leukemia Treatment, Diagnosis, Causes and Symptoms

What Is Leukaemia?

Leukaemia is cancer of the body’s blood-forming tissues, including the bone marrow and the lymphatic system. Leukaemia usually involves the white blood cells. Your white blood cells are potent infection fighters — they normally grow and divide in an orderly way, as your body needs them. But in people with leukaemia, the bone marrow produces an excessive amount of abnormal white blood cells, which don’t function properly.

Leukaemia Symptoms

Different types of leukaemia can cause different problems. You might not notice any signs in the early stages of some forms. When you do have symptoms, they may include:

  • Weakness or fatigue
  • Bruising or bleeding easily
  • Fever or chills
  • Infections that are severe or keep coming back
  • Pain in your bones or joints
  • Headaches
  • Vomiting
  • Seizures
  • Weight loss
  • Night sweats
  • Shortness of breath
  • Swollen lymph nodes or organs like your spleen

Leukemia Causes and Risk Factors

Leukemia Causes and Risk Factors

No one knows exactly what causes leukemia. People who have it have certain unusual chromosomes, but the chromosomes don’t cause leukemia.

You can’t prevent leukemia, but certain things may trigger it. You might have a higher risk if you:

  • Previous cancer treatment. People who’ve had certain types of chemotherapy and radiation therapy for other cancers have an increased risk of developing certain types of leukemia.
  • Genetic disorders. Genetic abnormalities seem to play a role in the development of leukemia. Certain genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome, are associated with an increased risk of leukemia.
  • Exposure to certain chemicals. Exposure to certain chemicals, such as benzene — which is found in gasoline and is used by the chemical industry — is linked to an increased risk of some kinds of leukemia.
  • Smoking. Smoking cigarettes increases the risk of acute myelogenous leukemia.
  • Family history of leukemia. If members of your family have been diagnosed with leukemia, your risk of the disease may be increased.

How does leukemia happen?

  • Blood has three types of cells: white blood cells that fight infection, red blood cells that carry oxygen, and platelets that help blood clot.
  • Every day, your bone marrow makes billions of new blood cells, and most of them are red cells. When you have leukemia, your body makes more white cells than it needs.
  • These leukemia cells can’t fight infection the way normal white blood cells do. And because there are so many of them, they start to affect the way your organs work. Over time, you may not have enough red blood cells to supply oxygen, enough platelets to clot your blood, or enough normal white blood cells to fight infection.

Leukemia classifications

Leukemia is grouped by how fast it develops and gets worse, and by which type of blood cell is involved.

The first group, how fast it develops, is divided into acute and chronic leukemia.

  • Acute leukemia happens when most of the abnormal blood cells don’t mature and can’t carry out normal functions. It can get bad very fast.
  • Chronic leukemia happens when there are some immature cells, but others are normal and can work the way they should. It gets bad more slowly than acute forms do.

The second group, what type of cell is involved, is divided into lymphocytic and myelogenous leukemia.

  • Lymphocytic (or lymphoblastic) leukemia involves bone marrow cells that become lymphocytes, a kind of white blood cell.
  • Myelogenous (or myeloid) leukemia involves the marrow cells that create red blood cells, platelets, and other kinds of white blood cells.

Types of leukemia

The four main types of leukemia are:

  • Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)-This is the most common form of childhood leukemia. It can spread to your lymph nodes and central nervous system.
  • Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)- This is the second most common form of childhood leukemia and one of the most common forms for adults.
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)- This is the other most common form of adult leukemia. Some kinds of CLL will be stable for years and won’t need treatment. But with others, your body isn’t able to create normal blood cells, and you’ll need treatment.
  • Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)- With this form, you might not have noticeable symptoms. You might not be diagnosed with it until you have a routine blood test. People 65 and older have a higher risk of this type.

Leukemia Diagnosis

Doctor will need to check for signs of leukemia in blood or bone marrow. They might do tests including:

  • Blood tests. A complete blood count (CBC) looks at the number and maturity of different types of blood cells. A blood smear looks for unusual or immature cells.
  • Bone marrow biopsy. This test involves marrow taken from your pelvic bone with a long needle. It can tell your doctor what kind of leukaemia you have and how severe it is.
  • Spinal tap. This involves fluid from your spinal cord. It can tell your doctor whether the leukaemia has spread.
  • Imaging tests. Things like CT, MRI, and PET scans can spot signs of leukaemia.

Leukaemia Treatments

Leukaemia Treatments

The treatment you get depends on the type of leukaemia you have, how far it’s spread, and how healthy you are. The main options are:

  • Chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is the major form of treatment for leukemia. This drug treatment uses chemicals to kill leukemia cells.

Depending on the type of leukemia you have, you may receive a single drug or a combination of drugs. These drugs may come in a pill form, or they may be injected directly into a vein.

  • Targeted therapy. Targeted drug treatments focus on specific abnormalities present within cancer cells. By blocking these abnormalities, targeted drug treatments can cause cancer cells to die. Your leukemia cells will be tested to see if targeted therapy may be helpful for you.
  • Radiation therapy. Radiation therapy uses X-rays or other high-energy beams to damage leukemia cells and stop their growth. During radiation therapy, you lie on a table while a large machine moves around you, directing the radiation to precise points on your body.

You may receive radiation in one specific area of your body where there is a collection of leukemia cells, or you may receive radiation over your whole body. Radiation therapy may be used to prepare for a bone marrow transplant.

  • Bone marrow transplant. A bone marrow transplant, also called a stem cell transplant, helps reestablish healthy stem cells by replacing unhealthy bone marrow with leukemia-free stem cells that will regenerate healthy bone marrow.

Prior to a bone marrow transplant, you receive very high doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy to destroy your leukemia-producing bone marrow. Then you receive an infusion of blood-forming stem cells that help rebuild your bone marrow.

You may receive stem cells from a donor or you may be able to use your own stem cells.

  • Immunotherapy. Immunotherapy uses your immune system to fight cancer. Your body’s disease-fighting immune system may not attack your cancer because the cancer cells produce proteins that help them hide from the immune system cells. Immunotherapy works by interfering with that process.
  • Engineering immune cells to fight leukemia. A specialized treatment called chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy takes your body’s germ-fighting T cells, engineers them to fight cancer and infuses them back into your body. CAR-T cell therapy might be an option for certain types of leukemia.
  • Clinical trials. Clinical trials are experiments to test new cancer treatments and new ways of using existing treatments. While clinical trials give you or your child a chance to try the latest cancer treatment, treatment benefits and risks may be uncertain. Discuss the benefits and risks of clinical trials with your doctor.

Bone Cancer Treatment and Cost in India

Bone Cancer Treatment Cost in India

Bone cancer affects more thousands of people around the world. In the United States alone, it is diagnosed in more than 3,000 patients each year and approximately half of them die due to it.

Typically, bone cancer affects children and adolescents. Although rarely, it affects some percentage of older adults too, mostly because of spread to cancer from some other location to the bones. A majority of primary bone cancers initiate in the bones of the arms or the legs however, it can affect any bone of the human body.

Bone cancer is, therefore, a rare type of cancer that can affects both children and adults, but a majority of cases are reported in children alone. Since bones form an important part of the human skeletal framework, it is important to diagnose and treat bone cancer in early stages for improved chances of survival.

TYPES OF BONE CANCER:

There are different types of bone cancer. The most common types of bone cancer are described below:

Osteosarcoma:

It is a malignant form of bone cancer that originates in the bone itself (primary cancer). Typically, it affects patients aged between 10 and 25 years and initiate in the long bones of the legs and the arms. It can also start in he rapidly growing areas of the body such as shoulders and around the knees.

Chordoma:

It is a rare type of bone cancer that typically affects males aged above 30 years. It is less common in females and primarily affects the spinal column.

Chondrosarcoma: 

It is the second most common form of malignant bone cancer. This form of cancer affects patients aged above 40 and can manifest itself in the cartilage of the pelvis and the hips. It can either grow slow or can be very aggressive.

Fibrosarcoma:

This form of cancer primarily affects patients aged between 35 and 55. It affects makes more than females, and initiates in soft tissues, especially those behind the knee.

Ewing’s sarcoma: 

This type of bone tumor primarily affects children aged between 4 and 15 and initiate in the middle of the long bones of that of legs and the arms.

BONE CANCER SYMPTOMS

The bone cancer symptoms may vary from person to person, depending on the age of the patient and the type of bone cancer that he or she is suffering from. All bone cancer symptoms tend to change with the severity of the condition and pain is one symptom that tend to persist through all stages of bone cancer.

The pain can be felt by the bone cancer patient during any time of the day or it could be felt at night only. Some patients are also able to experience a lump or a swelling in the tissues surrounding the site of the tumor or in the bone itself.

Some of the rare bone cancer symptoms that appear when the cancer has spread to other parts of the body  include:

  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Weight loss
  • Night sweats

Some of the bone cancer symptoms may overlap with what seems to be the symptom for some other underlying condition. Therefore, it is necessary to contact a doctor immediately as soon as any discomfort or pain is experienced by the patient.

BONE CANCER DIAGNOSIS

Bone cancer diagnosis typically involve the following steps:

  • Physical exam: When you present yourself with a certain set of bone cancer symptoms, the doctor may first ask you about the family history of the disease, followed by a complete physical examination.
  • Blood test: When the doctor suspects bone cancer, a blood test to measure the levels of an enzyme called alkaline phosphatase may be advised. This enzyme is present in excess when the bone tissue is very active, which appears to be the true in case of bone cancer. Other than bone cancer, the levels are high in case of mending bone fracture and abnormal bone tissue.
  • X-ray: In case of high alkaline phosphatase enzyme, an X-ray is conducted to confirm the shape, size and the location of the tumor. It may be followed up with an angiogram, a CT scan or a MRI.
  • Biopsy: A needle or an incisional biopsy is conducted at the end to confirm the bone cancer diagnosis. It is done by recovering a small sample from the suspected site of bone cancer and by looking for cancer cells in the sample placed under the microscope.

BONE CANCER TREATMENT IN INDIA

Bone cancer treatment in India includes the use of state-of-the-art technology and medical expertise for advanced diagnosis and timely treatment. Each year, hundreds of bone cancer patients travel to India to seek personalized care under the guidance of specially trained and highly experienced medical and nursing staff.

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Bone Cancer Treatment patients
Bone Cancer Treatment patients
Bone Cancer Treatment patients

The primary form of bone cancer treatment in India is surgery, which can be used to stage the cancer of treat is completely by removing the tissues and the part of the bone affected by cancer.

The following are some of the types of surgeries conducted as a part of bone cancer treatment in India:

  • Amputation: This type of surgery involves complete removal of the limb. An artificial part or prosthesis may be attached during the procedure to compensate for the lost part.
  • Limb-sparing surgery: In this type of surgery, only cancer and some part of the surrounding tissues are removed. The patient is, thus, able to retain all parts of the body intact in this surgery.
  • Staging: This type of surgery may be conducted before the actual treatment to determine the age of bone cancer.

In addition to the aforementioned surgeries, lymph nodes may be removed surgically in case the bone cancer has spread there. Additional surgeries may be carried out to ease bone cancer symptoms.

BEST HOSPITALS FOR BONE CANCER TREATMENT IN INDIA

Some of the top hospitals for bone cancer treatment in India include:

  • BLK Super Specialty Hospital, New Delhi
  • Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi
  • Aster Medcity, Kochi
  • Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurgaon
  • Global Health City, Chennai
  • Global Hospital, Lakdi Ka Pul, Hyderabad
  • Kokilaben Dhirubai Ambani Hospital, Mumbai
  • Medanta The Medicity, Gurgaon
  • Dharamshila Cancer Hospital, New Delhi

BONE CANCER TREATMENT COST IN INDIA

The cost of bone cancer treatment in India is quite less as compared to other countries around the world, including Singapore, Malaysia, US, UK and the Middle East.

Bone cancer treatment cost in India falls between US $7000 and $9000, which included one week of hospitals stay, the cost of surgery, initial treatment, doctor’s fees, surgeon’s fees, bad charges and hospital charges. The same facilities for a week cost around $18000 to $22000 in the US.

BEST BONE CANCER TREATMENT DOCTORS IN INDIA

TOP BONE CANCER DOCTORS IN INDIA
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PROSTATE CANCER TREATMENT IN INDIA

PROSTATE CANCER TREATMENT IN INDIA

The Prostate

The prostate is part of a reproductive system used by a man. It is located right in front of the rectum and below the bladder. It encircles the urethra, the tube from which flows urine. A walnut is about the size of a healthy prostate. The prostate is an integral part of seminal fluid. Seminal fluid helps carry sperm from the man’s body as a part of the semen during ejaculation.

Male hormones (androgens) make the prostate grow. The testicles are the main source of male hormones, including testosterone. The adrenal gland also makes testosterone but in small amounts.

If the prostate grows too large, it squeezes the urethra. This may slow or stop the flow of urine from the bladder to the penis.

PROSTATE CANCER

Confronting Prostate Cancer

One of the most common forms of cancer in people is prostate cancer. It usually affects men in their 60s, but is now also being found progressively in men of a lower age group. Common issues that occur in this gland include benign (non-cancerous) enlargement or prostate cancer. Older age, family history, and obesity are risk factors.

Prostate cancer is rising slowly and remains limited to the prostate initially. However, development is rapid in some cases and can spread rapidly to other organs. Early detection enables patients to choose between a range of treatment options, with excellent results. Treatment of prostate cancer includes a team of Medical, Radiation, and Uro-Oncology experts who are aligned to follow protocols of international standards.

Prostate Cancer Symptoms

  • Trouble urinating
  • Decreased force in the stream of urine
  • Blood in semen
  • Discomfort in the pelvic area
  • Bone pain
  • Erectile dysfunction

Having any of these symptoms does not mean it is cancer, but if one or more of them are noticed for more than two weeks then a doctor must be seen, and an immediate health screening is a must.

Prostate cancer sometimes does not cause symptoms until it is advanced. So regular tests are recommended with the Digital Rectal Exam (DRE) and the Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) examination. High levels of PSA may be predictive of cancer, infection, inflammation, or non-cancerous enlargement. For further examination, transrectal ultrasound is performed. The biopsied tissues are tested to determine the Gleason score for the degree of prostate cancer. The diagnosis is confirmed by bone scan, CT, MRI, or PET CT accompanied by Biopsy. Men diagnosed with prostate cancer in the early stages may not need treatment immediately. In only a few cases active surveillance is required.

DIAGNOSIS

  • The patient would require to undergo detailed Physical & clinical at evaluations which will include Blood Tests, DRE, and PSA.
  • Prostate cancer is diagnosed leading cancer hospitals in India through these methods:
  • Digital rectal exam (DRE): It helps detect lumps, asymmetries and the size of the prostate.

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA): It is a blood test that looks for a protein that the prostate generates.

TYPES OF PROSTATE CANCER

  • Acinar adenocarcinoma Adenocarcinomas are cancers that develop in the gland cells that line the prostate gland. They are the most common type of prostate cancer. Nearly everyone with prostate cancer has this type.
  • Ductal adenocarcinoma
    Ductal adenocarcinoma starts in the cells that line the ducts (tubes) of the prostate gland. It tends to grow and spread more quickly than acinar adenocarcinoma.
  • Transitional cell (or urothelial) cancer
    Transitional cell cancer of the prostate starts in the cells that line the tube carrying urine to the outside of the body (the urethra). This type of cancer usually starts in the bladder and spreads into the prostate
  • Squamous cell cancer
    These cancers develop from flat cells that cover the prostate. They tend to grow and spread more quickly than adenocarcinoma of the prostate.
  • Small cell prostate cancer

Risk Factors

No one knows the exact causes of prostate cancer. Doctors often cannot explain why one man develops prostate cancer and another does not. However, we do know that prostate cancer is not contagious. You cannot “catch” it from another person.

Research has shown that men with certain risk factors are more likely than others to develop prostate cancer. A risk factor is something that may increase the chance of developing a disease.

Studies have found the following risk factors for prostate cancer:

  • Age: Age is the main risk factor for prostate cancer. This disease is rare in men younger than 45. The chance of getting it goes up sharply as a man gets older. In the United States, most men with prostate cancer are older than 65.
  • Family history: A man’s risk is higher if his father or brother had prostate cancer.
  • Race: Prostate cancer is more common in African American men than in white men, including Hispanic white men. It is less common in Asian and American Indian men.
  • Certain prostate changes: Men with cells called high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) may be at increased risk for prostate cancer. These prostate cells look abnormal under a microscope.
  • Diet: Some studies suggest that men who eat a diet high in animal fat or meat may be at increased risk for prostate cancer. Men who eat a diet rich in fruits and vegetables may have a lower risk
  • Many of these risk factors can be avoided. Others, such as family history, cannot be avoided. You can help protect yourself by staying away from known risk factors whenever possible.

Scientists have also examined whether BPH, obesity, smoking, a sexually transmitted virus, or lack of exercise may raise the risk of prostate cancer. There are not strong risk factors at this time. Most research also did not find an elevated risk of prostate cancer for men who had a vasectomy. A vasectomy is a surgery to cut or tie off the tubes from the testicles that carry sperm.

Most men with known risk factors are not getting prostate cancer. On the other hand, people who do get the disease often have no known risk factors, except to grow older. When you think you may be at risk, speak to your doctor. Your doctor may be able to suggest ways to lower your risk and can plan a check-up schedule.

Screening

Your doctor will be able to check for prostate cancer before you experience any symptoms. Screening can help the doctors find cancer and treat it early. But studies so far have not shown that screening tests are reducing prostate cancer deaths. You may want to talk to your doctor about the potential benefits and harms that screening can bring. The decision to be screened, like many other medical decisions, is a personal one. You should decide after learning the pros and cons of screening.

Your doctor can explain more about these tests:

  • Digital rectal exam: The doctor inserts a lubricated, gloved finger into the rectum and feels the prostate through the rectal wall. The prostate is checked for hard or lumpy areas.
  • Blood test for prostate-specific antigen (PSA): A lab checks the level of PSA in a man’s blood sample. A high PSA level is commonly caused by BPH or prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate). Prostate cancer may also cause a high PSA level.

The digital rectal exam and PSA test can detect a problem in the prostate. They cannot show whether the problem is cancer or a less serious condition. Your doctor will use the results of these tests to help decide whether to check further for signs of cancer.

The treatment options include surgery or radiation therapy (radical prostatectomy). Extreme prostatectomy for prostate cancer includes removing a few lymph nodes, the prostate gland, and underlying tissue. The da Vinci Robotic Surgery System is used in some of the best cancer treatment facilities in the world for operations. Robotic prostatectomy allows the surgeon to make more precise movements with surgical tools as compared to traditional open or minimally invasive surgery.

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