Leukemia Treatment

Leukemia Treatment, Diagnosis, Causes and Symptoms

What Is Leukaemia?

Leukaemia is cancer of the body’s blood-forming tissues, including the bone marrow and the lymphatic system. Leukaemia usually involves the white blood cells. Your white blood cells are potent infection fighters — they normally grow and divide in an orderly way, as your body needs them. But in people with leukaemia, the bone marrow produces an excessive amount of abnormal white blood cells, which don’t function properly.

Leukaemia Symptoms

Different types of leukaemia can cause different problems. You might not notice any signs in the early stages of some forms. When you do have symptoms, they may include:

  • Weakness or fatigue
  • Bruising or bleeding easily
  • Fever or chills
  • Infections that are severe or keep coming back
  • Pain in your bones or joints
  • Headaches
  • Vomiting
  • Seizures
  • Weight loss
  • Night sweats
  • Shortness of breath
  • Swollen lymph nodes or organs like your spleen

Leukemia Causes and Risk Factors

Leukemia Causes and Risk Factors

No one knows exactly what causes leukemia. People who have it have certain unusual chromosomes, but the chromosomes don’t cause leukemia.

You can’t prevent leukemia, but certain things may trigger it. You might have a higher risk if you:

  • Previous cancer treatment. People who’ve had certain types of chemotherapy and radiation therapy for other cancers have an increased risk of developing certain types of leukemia.
  • Genetic disorders. Genetic abnormalities seem to play a role in the development of leukemia. Certain genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome, are associated with an increased risk of leukemia.
  • Exposure to certain chemicals. Exposure to certain chemicals, such as benzene — which is found in gasoline and is used by the chemical industry — is linked to an increased risk of some kinds of leukemia.
  • Smoking. Smoking cigarettes increases the risk of acute myelogenous leukemia.
  • Family history of leukemia. If members of your family have been diagnosed with leukemia, your risk of the disease may be increased.

How does leukemia happen?

  • Blood has three types of cells: white blood cells that fight infection, red blood cells that carry oxygen, and platelets that help blood clot.
  • Every day, your bone marrow makes billions of new blood cells, and most of them are red cells. When you have leukemia, your body makes more white cells than it needs.
  • These leukemia cells can’t fight infection the way normal white blood cells do. And because there are so many of them, they start to affect the way your organs work. Over time, you may not have enough red blood cells to supply oxygen, enough platelets to clot your blood, or enough normal white blood cells to fight infection.

Leukemia classifications

Leukemia is grouped by how fast it develops and gets worse, and by which type of blood cell is involved.

The first group, how fast it develops, is divided into acute and chronic leukemia.

  • Acute leukemia happens when most of the abnormal blood cells don’t mature and can’t carry out normal functions. It can get bad very fast.
  • Chronic leukemia happens when there are some immature cells, but others are normal and can work the way they should. It gets bad more slowly than acute forms do.

The second group, what type of cell is involved, is divided into lymphocytic and myelogenous leukemia.

  • Lymphocytic (or lymphoblastic) leukemia involves bone marrow cells that become lymphocytes, a kind of white blood cell.
  • Myelogenous (or myeloid) leukemia involves the marrow cells that create red blood cells, platelets, and other kinds of white blood cells.

Types of leukemia

The four main types of leukemia are:

  • Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)-This is the most common form of childhood leukemia. It can spread to your lymph nodes and central nervous system.
  • Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)- This is the second most common form of childhood leukemia and one of the most common forms for adults.
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)- This is the other most common form of adult leukemia. Some kinds of CLL will be stable for years and won’t need treatment. But with others, your body isn’t able to create normal blood cells, and you’ll need treatment.
  • Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)- With this form, you might not have noticeable symptoms. You might not be diagnosed with it until you have a routine blood test. People 65 and older have a higher risk of this type.

Leukemia Diagnosis

Doctor will need to check for signs of leukemia in blood or bone marrow. They might do tests including:

  • Blood tests. A complete blood count (CBC) looks at the number and maturity of different types of blood cells. A blood smear looks for unusual or immature cells.
  • Bone marrow biopsy. This test involves marrow taken from your pelvic bone with a long needle. It can tell your doctor what kind of leukaemia you have and how severe it is.
  • Spinal tap. This involves fluid from your spinal cord. It can tell your doctor whether the leukaemia has spread.
  • Imaging tests. Things like CT, MRI, and PET scans can spot signs of leukaemia.

Leukaemia Treatments

Leukaemia Treatments

The treatment you get depends on the type of leukaemia you have, how far it’s spread, and how healthy you are. The main options are:

  • Chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is the major form of treatment for leukemia. This drug treatment uses chemicals to kill leukemia cells.

Depending on the type of leukemia you have, you may receive a single drug or a combination of drugs. These drugs may come in a pill form, or they may be injected directly into a vein.

  • Targeted therapy. Targeted drug treatments focus on specific abnormalities present within cancer cells. By blocking these abnormalities, targeted drug treatments can cause cancer cells to die. Your leukemia cells will be tested to see if targeted therapy may be helpful for you.
  • Radiation therapy. Radiation therapy uses X-rays or other high-energy beams to damage leukemia cells and stop their growth. During radiation therapy, you lie on a table while a large machine moves around you, directing the radiation to precise points on your body.

You may receive radiation in one specific area of your body where there is a collection of leukemia cells, or you may receive radiation over your whole body. Radiation therapy may be used to prepare for a bone marrow transplant.

  • Bone marrow transplant. A bone marrow transplant, also called a stem cell transplant, helps reestablish healthy stem cells by replacing unhealthy bone marrow with leukemia-free stem cells that will regenerate healthy bone marrow.

Prior to a bone marrow transplant, you receive very high doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy to destroy your leukemia-producing bone marrow. Then you receive an infusion of blood-forming stem cells that help rebuild your bone marrow.

You may receive stem cells from a donor or you may be able to use your own stem cells.

  • Immunotherapy. Immunotherapy uses your immune system to fight cancer. Your body’s disease-fighting immune system may not attack your cancer because the cancer cells produce proteins that help them hide from the immune system cells. Immunotherapy works by interfering with that process.
  • Engineering immune cells to fight leukemia. A specialized treatment called chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy takes your body’s germ-fighting T cells, engineers them to fight cancer and infuses them back into your body. CAR-T cell therapy might be an option for certain types of leukemia.
  • Clinical trials. Clinical trials are experiments to test new cancer treatments and new ways of using existing treatments. While clinical trials give you or your child a chance to try the latest cancer treatment, treatment benefits and risks may be uncertain. Discuss the benefits and risks of clinical trials with your doctor.

Treatment for Brain Tumours

Treatment for Brain Tumours

A brain tumor is a mass or growth of abnormal cells in your brain.

Many different types of brain tumors exist. Some brain tumors are noncancerous (benign), and some brain tumors are cancerous (malignant). Brain tumors can begin in your brain (primary brain tumors), or cancer can begin in other parts of your body and spread to your brain as secondary (metastatic) brain tumors. How quickly a brain tumor grows can vary greatly. The growth rate as well as the location of a brain tumor determines how it will affect the function of your nervous system.

Brain tumor treatment options depend on the type of brain tumor you have, as well as its size and location.

Diagnosis

If it’s suspected that you have a brain tumor, your doctor may recommend a number of tests and procedures, including:

  • A neurological exam. A neurological exam may include, among other things, checking your vision, hearing, balance, coordination, strength and reflexes. Difficulty in one or more areas may provide clues about the part of your brain that could be affected by a brain tumor.
  • Imaging tests. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is commonly used to help diagnose brain tumors. Sometimes a dye is injected through a vein in your arm during your MRI study.

A number of specialized MRI scan components — including functional MRI, perfusion MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy — may help your doctor evaluate the tumor and plan treatment.

Sometimes other imaging tests are recommended in certain situations, including computerized tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET).

  • Collecting and testing a sample of abnormal tissue (biopsy). A biopsy can be performed as part of an operation to remove the brain tumor, or a biopsy can be performed using a needle.

A stereotactic needle biopsy may be done for brain tumors in hard to reach areas or very sensitive areas within your brain that might be damaged by a more extensive operation. Your neurosurgeon drills a small hole into your skull. A thin needle is then inserted through the hole. Tissue is removed using the needle, which is frequently guided by CT or MRI scanning.

The biopsy sample is then viewed under a microscope to determine if it’s cancerous or benign. Sophisticated laboratory tests can give your doctor clues about your prognosis and your treatment options. Studying your biopsy sample and determining exactly which type of brain tumor you have is a complex process. If you’re uncertain about your diagnosis, consider seeking a second opinion at a medical center where many brain biopsies are evaluated every year.

Surgery

If the brain tumor is located in a place that makes it accessible for an operation, your surgeon will work to remove as much of the brain tumor as can be done safely.

Some brain tumors are small and easy to separate from surrounding brain tissue, which makes complete surgical removal possible. Other brain tumors can’t be separated from surrounding tissue or they’re located near sensitive areas in your brain, making surgery risky. In these situations, your doctor removes as much of the tumor as is safe.

Even removing a portion of the brain tumor may help reduce your signs and symptoms.

Surgery to remove a brain tumor carries risks, such as infection and bleeding. Other risks may depend on the part of your brain where your tumor is located. For instance, surgery on a tumor near nerves that connect to your eyes may carry a risk of vision loss.

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy uses high-energy beams, such as X-rays or protons, to kill tumor cells. Radiation therapy can come from a machine outside your body (external beam radiation), or, very rarely, radiation can be placed inside your body close to your brain tumor (brachytherapy). External beam radiation can focus just on the area of your brain where the tumor is located, or it can be applied to your entire brain (whole-brain radiation). Whole-brain radiation is most often used to treat cancer that spreads to the brain from some other part of the body and forms multiple tumors in the brain.

Traditionally, radiation therapy uses X-rays, but a newer form of this treatment uses proton beams. Proton beam therapy allows doctors to control the radiation more precisely. It may be helpful for treating brain tumors in children and tumors that are very close to sensitive areas of the brain. Proton beam therapy isn’t as widely available as traditional X-ray radiation therapy.

Side effects of radiation therapy depend on the type and dose of radiation you receive. Common side effects during or immediately following radiation include fatigue, headaches, memory loss, scalp irritation and hair loss.

Radiosurgery

Stereotactic radiosurgery is not a form of surgery in the traditional sense. Instead, radiosurgery uses multiple beams of radiation to give a highly focused form of radiation treatment to kill the tumor cells in a very small area. Each beam of radiation isn’t particularly powerful, but the point where all the beams meet — at the brain tumor — receives a very large dose of radiation to kill the tumor cells.

There are different types of technology used in radiosurgery to deliver radiation to treat brain tumors, such as a Gamma Knife or linear accelerator. Radiosurgery is typically done in one treatment, and usually you can go home the same day.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill tumor cells. Chemotherapy drugs can be taken orally in pill form or injected into a vein (intravenously). The chemotherapy drug used most often to treat brain tumors is temozolomide (Temodar). Other chemotherapy drugs may be recommended depending on the type of cancer.

Chemotherapy side effects depend on the type and dose of drugs you receive. Chemotherapy can cause nausea, vomiting and hair loss.

Targeted drug therapy

Targeted drug treatments focus on specific abnormalities present within cancer cells. By blocking these abnormalities, targeted drug treatments can cause cancer cells to die. Targeted therapy drugs are available for certain types of brain tumors, and many more are being studied in clinical trials. Your doctor may have your tumor cells tested to see whether targeted therapy is likely to be an effective treatment for your brain tumor.

Rehabilitation after treatment

Because brain tumors can develop in parts of the brain that control motor skills, speech, vision and thinking, rehabilitation may be a necessary part of recovery. Depending on your needs, your doctor may refer you to:

  • Physical therapy to help you regain lost motor skills or muscle strength
  • Occupational therapy to help you get back to your normal daily activities, including work, after a brain tumor or other illness
  • Speech therapy with specialists in speech difficulties (speech pathologists) to help if you have difficulty speaking
  • Tutoring for school-age children to help kids cope with changes in their memory and thinking after a brain tumor

Symptoms

The signs and symptoms of a brain tumor vary greatly and depend on the brain tumor’s size, location and rate of growth. General signs and symptoms caused by brain tumors may include:

  • New onset or change in pattern of headaches
  • Headaches that gradually become more frequent and more severe
  • Unexplained nausea or vomiting
  • Vision problems, such as blurred vision, double vision or loss of peripheral vision
  • Gradual loss of sensation or movement in an arm or a leg
  • Difficulty with balance
  • Speech difficulties
  • Feeling very tired
  • Confusion in everyday matters
  • Difficulty making decisions
  • Inability to follow simple commands
  • Personality or behavior changes
  • Seizures, especially in someone who doesn’t have a history of seizures
  • Hearing problems

Causes

Primary brain tumors originate in the brain itself or in tissues close to it, such as in the brain-covering membranes (meninges), cranial nerves, pituitary gland or pineal gland. It begins when normal cells develop changes (mutations) in their DNA. A cell’s DNA contains the instructions that tell a cell what to do. The mutations tell the cells to grow and divide rapidly and to continue living when healthy cells would die. The result is a mass of abnormal cells, which forms a tumor.

In adults, primary brain tumors are much less common than are secondary brain tumors, in which cancer begins elsewhere and spreads to the brain. Many different types of primary brain tumors exist. Each gets its name from the type of cells involved. Examples include:

  • Gliomas. These tumors begin in the brain or spinal cord and include astrocytomas, ependymomas, glioblastomas, oligoastrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas.
  • Meningiomas. A meningioma is a tumor that arises from the membranes that surround your brain and spinal cord (meninges). Most meningiomas are noncancerous.
  • Acoustic neuromas (schwannomas). These are benign tumors that develop on the nerves that control balance and hearing leading from your inner ear to your brain.
  • Pituitary adenomas. These are tumors that develop in the pituitary gland at the base of the brain. These tumors can affect the pituitary hormones with effects throughout the body.
  • Medulloblastomas. These cancerous brain tumors are most common in children, though they can occur at any age. A medulloblastoma starts in the lower back part of the brain and tends to spread through the spinal fluid.
  • Germ cell tumors. Germ cell tumors may develop during childhood where the testicles or ovaries will form. But sometimes germ cell tumors affect other parts of the body, such as the brain.
  • Craniopharyngiomas. These rare tumors start near the brain’s pituitary gland, which secretes hormones that control many body functions. As the craniopharyngioma slowly grows, it can affect the pituitary gland and other structures near the brain.

Risk factors

In most people with primary brain tumors, the cause of the tumor isn’t clear. But doctors have identified some factors that may increase your risk of a brain tumor. Risk factors include:

  • Exposure to radiation. People who have been exposed to a type of radiation called ionizing radiation have an increased risk of brain tumor. Examples of ionizing radiation include radiation therapy used to treat cancer and radiation exposure caused by atomic bombs.
  • Family history of brain tumors. A small portion of brain tumors occurs in people with a family history of brain tumors or a family history of genetic syndromes that increase the risk of brain tumors.
Deep brain stimulation

Deep brain stimulation

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) involves implanting electrodes within certain areas of the brain. These electrodes produce electrical impulses that regulate abnormal impulses. Or the electrical impulses can affect certain cells and chemicals within the brain.

The amount of stimulation in deep brain stimulation is controlled by a pacemaker-like device placed under the skin in your upper chest. A wire that travels under your skin connects this device to the electrodes in your brain.

Deep brain stimulation is commonly used to treat a number of conditions, such as:

  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Essential tremor
  • Dystonia
  • Epilepsy
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Deep brain stimulation is also being studied as a potential treatment for:

  • Tourette syndrome
  • Huntington’s disease and chorea
  • Chronic pain
  • Cluster headache

Why it’s done

Deep brain stimulation is an established treatment for people with movement disorders, such as essential tremor, Parkinson’s disease and dystonia, and psychiatric conditions, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder. It’s also approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration to reduce seizures in difficult-to-treat epilepsy.

This treatment is reserved for people whose symptoms aren’t controlled with medications.

RisksSurgery risks

Deep brain stimulation involves creating small holes in the skull to implant the electrodes into the brain tissue as well as performing surgery to implant the device that contains the batteries under the skin in the chest. Complications of surgery may include:

  • Misplacement of leads
  • Bleeding in the brain
  • Stroke
  • Infection
  • Breathing problems
  • Nausea
  • Heart problems
  • Seizure
  • Seizure
  • Infection
  • Headache
  • Confusion
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Stroke
  • Hardware complications, such as an eroded lead wire
  • Temporary pain and swelling at the implantation site

A few weeks after the surgery, the device will be turned on and the process of finding the best settings for you begins. Some settings may cause side effects, but these often improve with further adjustments of your device. Because there have been infrequent reports that the DBS therapy affects the movements needed for swimming, the Food and Drug Administration recommends consulting with your doctor and taking water safety precautions before swimming.

  • Numbness or tingling sensations
  • Muscle tightness of the face or arm
  • Speech problems
  • Balance problems
  • Light-headedness
  • Vision problems, such as double vision
  • Unwanted mood changes, such as anger and depression

How you prepare

Deep brain stimulation is a serious and potentially risky procedure. Even if you might be eligible for deep brain stimulation, you and your doctors must carefully weigh the risks and potential benefits of the procedure.

Before surgery, you’ll likely need medical tests to make sure that deep brain stimulation is a safe and appropriate option for you. You may also need brain-imaging studies, such as an MRI, before the surgery. These studies help to map the areas of your brain that will have the electrodes implanted.

What you can expectDuring the surgery

  • Brain surgery. For the brain surgery portion, your care team fits you with a special head frame to keep your head still during the procedure (stereotactic head frame). Then, team members use neuroimaging (brain MRI or CT) to map your brain and identify the area in your brain where they’ll place the electrodes.

In most cases, the electrodes will be placed while you’re awake and alert. This is to be sure the effects of stimulation can be tested fully. If you’re awake for surgery, you’ll be given a local aesthetic to numb your scalp before the procedure, but you won’t need an aesthetic in your brain itself because the brain has no pain receptors. In some cases, surgery can be done under general anaesthesia so that you’ll be unconscious.

Your surgeon implants a thin wire lead with a number of contacts (electrodes) at the tips into a specific area of your brain. Or one lead is implanted into each side of the brain (for a total of two leads). A wire runs under your skin to a pulse generator (neurostimulator) implanted near your collarbone.

During surgery, both the neurologist and the surgeon carefully monitor your brain to help ensure correct electrode placement.

  • Chest wall surgery. During the second portion of the surgery, the surgeon implants the part of the device that contains the batteries (pulse generator) under the skin in your chest, near your collarbone.

General anesthesia is used during this procedure. Wires from the brain electrodes are placed under your skin and guided down to the battery-operated pulse generator.

The generator is programmed to send continuous electrical pulses to your brain. You control the generator, and you can turn it on or off using a special remote control.

After the procedure

A few weeks after surgery, the pulse generator in your chest is activated in your doctor’s office. The doctor can easily program your pulse generator from outside your body using a special remote control. The amount of stimulation is customized to your condition, and may take as long as four to six months to find the optimal setting. Stimulation may be constant, 24 hours a day, or your doctor may advise you to turn your pulse generator off at night and back on in the morning, depending on your condition. You can turn stimulation on and off with a special remote control that you’ll take home with you. In some cases, your doctor may program the pulse generator to let you make minor adjustments at home.

The battery life of your generator varies with usage and settings. When the battery needs to be replaced, your surgeon will replace the generator during an outpatient procedure.

Results

Deep brain stimulation won’t cure your disease, but it may help lesser your symptoms. If deep brain stimulation works, your symptoms will improve significantly, but they usually don’t go away completely. In some cases, medications may still be needed for certain conditions.

Epilepsy Treatment

Advancements in Epilepsy Treatment

In recent years, a tremendous improvement in epilepsy diagnosis and treatment has been made to provide a seizure-free life, as well as to reduce a patient’s suffering arising from social discrimination, stigma, and misunderstandings.
To track possible seizure activities, wearable seizure detectors have been made. These devices are also helpful in preventing unexpected deaths in epilepsy caused by uncontrolled seizures.


To detect the source of seizures, many non-invasive techniques have been discovered that can directly target the brain region responsible for seizure onset. For example, in stereo-electroencephalography, thin electrodes are placed in the head to get information on brain activity, which can be used to point out the exact origin of seizure. Once the source is identified, various newly discovered techniques can be applied to effectively treat epilepsy. One such technique is responsive neurostimulation wherein a pacemaker-like device is implanted within the brain. The device evaluates the brain activity characteristics to detect the possibility of a seizure even before it happens and delivers electrical stimuli or drugs to inhibit the seizure. Similarly, a subthreshold stimulus can be applied continuously to a seizure-originating brain region to reduce the occurrence of seizures and improve a patient’s quality of life. In addition, some minimally invasive surgical options have been developed to avoid the risks of open-brain surgeries in epilepsy patients. One such method is stereotactic radiosurgery wherein radiation is applied to a specific seizure-originating brain region to destroy the tissue and improve seizure outcomes. Similarly, in MRI-guided laser ablation or laser interstitial thermal therapy, a small laser probe is inserted into the brain, and thermal energy is used to remove or destroy the brain tissue responsible for seizures. In vagus nerve stimulation, a device is implanted underneath the chest skin and electrical pulses are transmitted from the device to the vagus nerve through a wire to reduce the frequency of seizures.
Similarly, external nerve stimulation devices have been developed that can be placed externally, and thus, the surgical steps related to device implantation can be avoided.


Similar to surgical improvements, advancement in drug-based treatment has also been made. In this context, one recent study has identified a drug, usually prescribed for multiple sclerosis patients, which can be potentially applied to epilepsy patients to improve seizure outcomes. In the study, researchers have analysed the metabolic alterations associated with epilepsy to identify the genes that are responsible for maintaining metabolic homeostasis. They have identified a mitochondrial gene namely dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, which upon inhibition by the pharmacological intervention (multiple sclerosis medication) can stably inhibit neuronal activity in the brain. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, which plays a vital role in modulating metabolic changes caused by a ketogenic diet, has been found to act as a regulator of activity set points in the brain’s neural networks. It has also been found that pharmacological inhibition of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase reduces the synaptic transmission and neuronal firing rate in the hippocampus and improves the seizure outcomes by reducing calcium overload in the mitochondria.

Bone Cancer Treatment and Cost in India

Bone Cancer Treatment Cost in India

Bone cancer affects more thousands of people around the world. In the United States alone, it is diagnosed in more than 3,000 patients each year and approximately half of them die due to it.

Typically, bone cancer affects children and adolescents. Although rarely, it affects some percentage of older adults too, mostly because of spread to cancer from some other location to the bones. A majority of primary bone cancers initiate in the bones of the arms or the legs however, it can affect any bone of the human body.

Bone cancer is, therefore, a rare type of cancer that can affects both children and adults, but a majority of cases are reported in children alone. Since bones form an important part of the human skeletal framework, it is important to diagnose and treat bone cancer in early stages for improved chances of survival.

TYPES OF BONE CANCER:

There are different types of bone cancer. The most common types of bone cancer are described below:

Osteosarcoma:

It is a malignant form of bone cancer that originates in the bone itself (primary cancer). Typically, it affects patients aged between 10 and 25 years and initiate in the long bones of the legs and the arms. It can also start in he rapidly growing areas of the body such as shoulders and around the knees.

Chordoma:

It is a rare type of bone cancer that typically affects males aged above 30 years. It is less common in females and primarily affects the spinal column.

Chondrosarcoma: 

It is the second most common form of malignant bone cancer. This form of cancer affects patients aged above 40 and can manifest itself in the cartilage of the pelvis and the hips. It can either grow slow or can be very aggressive.

Fibrosarcoma:

This form of cancer primarily affects patients aged between 35 and 55. It affects makes more than females, and initiates in soft tissues, especially those behind the knee.

Ewing’s sarcoma: 

This type of bone tumor primarily affects children aged between 4 and 15 and initiate in the middle of the long bones of that of legs and the arms.

BONE CANCER SYMPTOMS

The bone cancer symptoms may vary from person to person, depending on the age of the patient and the type of bone cancer that he or she is suffering from. All bone cancer symptoms tend to change with the severity of the condition and pain is one symptom that tend to persist through all stages of bone cancer.

The pain can be felt by the bone cancer patient during any time of the day or it could be felt at night only. Some patients are also able to experience a lump or a swelling in the tissues surrounding the site of the tumor or in the bone itself.

Some of the rare bone cancer symptoms that appear when the cancer has spread to other parts of the body  include:

  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Weight loss
  • Night sweats

Some of the bone cancer symptoms may overlap with what seems to be the symptom for some other underlying condition. Therefore, it is necessary to contact a doctor immediately as soon as any discomfort or pain is experienced by the patient.

BONE CANCER DIAGNOSIS

Bone cancer diagnosis typically involve the following steps:

  • Physical exam: When you present yourself with a certain set of bone cancer symptoms, the doctor may first ask you about the family history of the disease, followed by a complete physical examination.
  • Blood test: When the doctor suspects bone cancer, a blood test to measure the levels of an enzyme called alkaline phosphatase may be advised. This enzyme is present in excess when the bone tissue is very active, which appears to be the true in case of bone cancer. Other than bone cancer, the levels are high in case of mending bone fracture and abnormal bone tissue.
  • X-ray: In case of high alkaline phosphatase enzyme, an X-ray is conducted to confirm the shape, size and the location of the tumor. It may be followed up with an angiogram, a CT scan or a MRI.
  • Biopsy: A needle or an incisional biopsy is conducted at the end to confirm the bone cancer diagnosis. It is done by recovering a small sample from the suspected site of bone cancer and by looking for cancer cells in the sample placed under the microscope.

BONE CANCER TREATMENT IN INDIA

Bone cancer treatment in India includes the use of state-of-the-art technology and medical expertise for advanced diagnosis and timely treatment. Each year, hundreds of bone cancer patients travel to India to seek personalized care under the guidance of specially trained and highly experienced medical and nursing staff.

Some of Our Happy patients

Bone Cancer Treatment patients
Bone Cancer Treatment patients
Bone Cancer Treatment patients

The primary form of bone cancer treatment in India is surgery, which can be used to stage the cancer of treat is completely by removing the tissues and the part of the bone affected by cancer.

The following are some of the types of surgeries conducted as a part of bone cancer treatment in India:

  • Amputation: This type of surgery involves complete removal of the limb. An artificial part or prosthesis may be attached during the procedure to compensate for the lost part.
  • Limb-sparing surgery: In this type of surgery, only cancer and some part of the surrounding tissues are removed. The patient is, thus, able to retain all parts of the body intact in this surgery.
  • Staging: This type of surgery may be conducted before the actual treatment to determine the age of bone cancer.

In addition to the aforementioned surgeries, lymph nodes may be removed surgically in case the bone cancer has spread there. Additional surgeries may be carried out to ease bone cancer symptoms.

BEST HOSPITALS FOR BONE CANCER TREATMENT IN INDIA

Some of the top hospitals for bone cancer treatment in India include:

  • BLK Super Specialty Hospital, New Delhi
  • Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi
  • Aster Medcity, Kochi
  • Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurgaon
  • Global Health City, Chennai
  • Global Hospital, Lakdi Ka Pul, Hyderabad
  • Kokilaben Dhirubai Ambani Hospital, Mumbai
  • Medanta The Medicity, Gurgaon
  • Dharamshila Cancer Hospital, New Delhi

BONE CANCER TREATMENT COST IN INDIA

The cost of bone cancer treatment in India is quite less as compared to other countries around the world, including Singapore, Malaysia, US, UK and the Middle East.

Bone cancer treatment cost in India falls between US $7000 and $9000, which included one week of hospitals stay, the cost of surgery, initial treatment, doctor’s fees, surgeon’s fees, bad charges and hospital charges. The same facilities for a week cost around $18000 to $22000 in the US.

BEST BONE CANCER TREATMENT DOCTORS IN INDIA

TOP BONE CANCER DOCTORS IN INDIA
TOP BONE CANCER DOCTORS IN INDIA2
TOP-BONE-CANCER-DOCTORS-IN-INDIA3

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