Leukemia Treatment

Leukemia Treatment, Diagnosis, Causes and Symptoms

What Is Leukaemia?

Leukaemia is cancer of the body’s blood-forming tissues, including the bone marrow and the lymphatic system. Leukaemia usually involves the white blood cells. Your white blood cells are potent infection fighters — they normally grow and divide in an orderly way, as your body needs them. But in people with leukaemia, the bone marrow produces an excessive amount of abnormal white blood cells, which don’t function properly.

Leukaemia Symptoms

Different types of leukaemia can cause different problems. You might not notice any signs in the early stages of some forms. When you do have symptoms, they may include:

  • Weakness or fatigue
  • Bruising or bleeding easily
  • Fever or chills
  • Infections that are severe or keep coming back
  • Pain in your bones or joints
  • Headaches
  • Vomiting
  • Seizures
  • Weight loss
  • Night sweats
  • Shortness of breath
  • Swollen lymph nodes or organs like your spleen

Leukemia Causes and Risk Factors

Leukemia Causes and Risk Factors

No one knows exactly what causes leukemia. People who have it have certain unusual chromosomes, but the chromosomes don’t cause leukemia.

You can’t prevent leukemia, but certain things may trigger it. You might have a higher risk if you:

  • Previous cancer treatment. People who’ve had certain types of chemotherapy and radiation therapy for other cancers have an increased risk of developing certain types of leukemia.
  • Genetic disorders. Genetic abnormalities seem to play a role in the development of leukemia. Certain genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome, are associated with an increased risk of leukemia.
  • Exposure to certain chemicals. Exposure to certain chemicals, such as benzene — which is found in gasoline and is used by the chemical industry — is linked to an increased risk of some kinds of leukemia.
  • Smoking. Smoking cigarettes increases the risk of acute myelogenous leukemia.
  • Family history of leukemia. If members of your family have been diagnosed with leukemia, your risk of the disease may be increased.

How does leukemia happen?

  • Blood has three types of cells: white blood cells that fight infection, red blood cells that carry oxygen, and platelets that help blood clot.
  • Every day, your bone marrow makes billions of new blood cells, and most of them are red cells. When you have leukemia, your body makes more white cells than it needs.
  • These leukemia cells can’t fight infection the way normal white blood cells do. And because there are so many of them, they start to affect the way your organs work. Over time, you may not have enough red blood cells to supply oxygen, enough platelets to clot your blood, or enough normal white blood cells to fight infection.

Leukemia classifications

Leukemia is grouped by how fast it develops and gets worse, and by which type of blood cell is involved.

The first group, how fast it develops, is divided into acute and chronic leukemia.

  • Acute leukemia happens when most of the abnormal blood cells don’t mature and can’t carry out normal functions. It can get bad very fast.
  • Chronic leukemia happens when there are some immature cells, but others are normal and can work the way they should. It gets bad more slowly than acute forms do.

The second group, what type of cell is involved, is divided into lymphocytic and myelogenous leukemia.

  • Lymphocytic (or lymphoblastic) leukemia involves bone marrow cells that become lymphocytes, a kind of white blood cell.
  • Myelogenous (or myeloid) leukemia involves the marrow cells that create red blood cells, platelets, and other kinds of white blood cells.

Types of leukemia

The four main types of leukemia are:

  • Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)-This is the most common form of childhood leukemia. It can spread to your lymph nodes and central nervous system.
  • Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)- This is the second most common form of childhood leukemia and one of the most common forms for adults.
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)- This is the other most common form of adult leukemia. Some kinds of CLL will be stable for years and won’t need treatment. But with others, your body isn’t able to create normal blood cells, and you’ll need treatment.
  • Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)- With this form, you might not have noticeable symptoms. You might not be diagnosed with it until you have a routine blood test. People 65 and older have a higher risk of this type.

Leukemia Diagnosis

Doctor will need to check for signs of leukemia in blood or bone marrow. They might do tests including:

  • Blood tests. A complete blood count (CBC) looks at the number and maturity of different types of blood cells. A blood smear looks for unusual or immature cells.
  • Bone marrow biopsy. This test involves marrow taken from your pelvic bone with a long needle. It can tell your doctor what kind of leukaemia you have and how severe it is.
  • Spinal tap. This involves fluid from your spinal cord. It can tell your doctor whether the leukaemia has spread.
  • Imaging tests. Things like CT, MRI, and PET scans can spot signs of leukaemia.

Leukaemia Treatments

Leukaemia Treatments

The treatment you get depends on the type of leukaemia you have, how far it’s spread, and how healthy you are. The main options are:

  • Chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is the major form of treatment for leukemia. This drug treatment uses chemicals to kill leukemia cells.

Depending on the type of leukemia you have, you may receive a single drug or a combination of drugs. These drugs may come in a pill form, or they may be injected directly into a vein.

  • Targeted therapy. Targeted drug treatments focus on specific abnormalities present within cancer cells. By blocking these abnormalities, targeted drug treatments can cause cancer cells to die. Your leukemia cells will be tested to see if targeted therapy may be helpful for you.
  • Radiation therapy. Radiation therapy uses X-rays or other high-energy beams to damage leukemia cells and stop their growth. During radiation therapy, you lie on a table while a large machine moves around you, directing the radiation to precise points on your body.

You may receive radiation in one specific area of your body where there is a collection of leukemia cells, or you may receive radiation over your whole body. Radiation therapy may be used to prepare for a bone marrow transplant.

  • Bone marrow transplant. A bone marrow transplant, also called a stem cell transplant, helps reestablish healthy stem cells by replacing unhealthy bone marrow with leukemia-free stem cells that will regenerate healthy bone marrow.

Prior to a bone marrow transplant, you receive very high doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy to destroy your leukemia-producing bone marrow. Then you receive an infusion of blood-forming stem cells that help rebuild your bone marrow.

You may receive stem cells from a donor or you may be able to use your own stem cells.

  • Immunotherapy. Immunotherapy uses your immune system to fight cancer. Your body’s disease-fighting immune system may not attack your cancer because the cancer cells produce proteins that help them hide from the immune system cells. Immunotherapy works by interfering with that process.
  • Engineering immune cells to fight leukemia. A specialized treatment called chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy takes your body’s germ-fighting T cells, engineers them to fight cancer and infuses them back into your body. CAR-T cell therapy might be an option for certain types of leukemia.
  • Clinical trials. Clinical trials are experiments to test new cancer treatments and new ways of using existing treatments. While clinical trials give you or your child a chance to try the latest cancer treatment, treatment benefits and risks may be uncertain. Discuss the benefits and risks of clinical trials with your doctor.

Treatment for Brain Tumours

Treatment for Brain Tumours

A brain tumor is a mass or growth of abnormal cells in your brain.

Many different types of brain tumors exist. Some brain tumors are noncancerous (benign), and some brain tumors are cancerous (malignant). Brain tumors can begin in your brain (primary brain tumors), or cancer can begin in other parts of your body and spread to your brain as secondary (metastatic) brain tumors. How quickly a brain tumor grows can vary greatly. The growth rate as well as the location of a brain tumor determines how it will affect the function of your nervous system.

Brain tumor treatment options depend on the type of brain tumor you have, as well as its size and location.

Diagnosis

If it’s suspected that you have a brain tumor, your doctor may recommend a number of tests and procedures, including:

  • A neurological exam. A neurological exam may include, among other things, checking your vision, hearing, balance, coordination, strength and reflexes. Difficulty in one or more areas may provide clues about the part of your brain that could be affected by a brain tumor.
  • Imaging tests. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is commonly used to help diagnose brain tumors. Sometimes a dye is injected through a vein in your arm during your MRI study.

A number of specialized MRI scan components — including functional MRI, perfusion MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy — may help your doctor evaluate the tumor and plan treatment.

Sometimes other imaging tests are recommended in certain situations, including computerized tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET).

  • Collecting and testing a sample of abnormal tissue (biopsy). A biopsy can be performed as part of an operation to remove the brain tumor, or a biopsy can be performed using a needle.

A stereotactic needle biopsy may be done for brain tumors in hard to reach areas or very sensitive areas within your brain that might be damaged by a more extensive operation. Your neurosurgeon drills a small hole into your skull. A thin needle is then inserted through the hole. Tissue is removed using the needle, which is frequently guided by CT or MRI scanning.

The biopsy sample is then viewed under a microscope to determine if it’s cancerous or benign. Sophisticated laboratory tests can give your doctor clues about your prognosis and your treatment options. Studying your biopsy sample and determining exactly which type of brain tumor you have is a complex process. If you’re uncertain about your diagnosis, consider seeking a second opinion at a medical center where many brain biopsies are evaluated every year.

Surgery

If the brain tumor is located in a place that makes it accessible for an operation, your surgeon will work to remove as much of the brain tumor as can be done safely.

Some brain tumors are small and easy to separate from surrounding brain tissue, which makes complete surgical removal possible. Other brain tumors can’t be separated from surrounding tissue or they’re located near sensitive areas in your brain, making surgery risky. In these situations, your doctor removes as much of the tumor as is safe.

Even removing a portion of the brain tumor may help reduce your signs and symptoms.

Surgery to remove a brain tumor carries risks, such as infection and bleeding. Other risks may depend on the part of your brain where your tumor is located. For instance, surgery on a tumor near nerves that connect to your eyes may carry a risk of vision loss.

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy uses high-energy beams, such as X-rays or protons, to kill tumor cells. Radiation therapy can come from a machine outside your body (external beam radiation), or, very rarely, radiation can be placed inside your body close to your brain tumor (brachytherapy). External beam radiation can focus just on the area of your brain where the tumor is located, or it can be applied to your entire brain (whole-brain radiation). Whole-brain radiation is most often used to treat cancer that spreads to the brain from some other part of the body and forms multiple tumors in the brain.

Traditionally, radiation therapy uses X-rays, but a newer form of this treatment uses proton beams. Proton beam therapy allows doctors to control the radiation more precisely. It may be helpful for treating brain tumors in children and tumors that are very close to sensitive areas of the brain. Proton beam therapy isn’t as widely available as traditional X-ray radiation therapy.

Side effects of radiation therapy depend on the type and dose of radiation you receive. Common side effects during or immediately following radiation include fatigue, headaches, memory loss, scalp irritation and hair loss.

Radiosurgery

Stereotactic radiosurgery is not a form of surgery in the traditional sense. Instead, radiosurgery uses multiple beams of radiation to give a highly focused form of radiation treatment to kill the tumor cells in a very small area. Each beam of radiation isn’t particularly powerful, but the point where all the beams meet — at the brain tumor — receives a very large dose of radiation to kill the tumor cells.

There are different types of technology used in radiosurgery to deliver radiation to treat brain tumors, such as a Gamma Knife or linear accelerator. Radiosurgery is typically done in one treatment, and usually you can go home the same day.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill tumor cells. Chemotherapy drugs can be taken orally in pill form or injected into a vein (intravenously). The chemotherapy drug used most often to treat brain tumors is temozolomide (Temodar). Other chemotherapy drugs may be recommended depending on the type of cancer.

Chemotherapy side effects depend on the type and dose of drugs you receive. Chemotherapy can cause nausea, vomiting and hair loss.

Targeted drug therapy

Targeted drug treatments focus on specific abnormalities present within cancer cells. By blocking these abnormalities, targeted drug treatments can cause cancer cells to die. Targeted therapy drugs are available for certain types of brain tumors, and many more are being studied in clinical trials. Your doctor may have your tumor cells tested to see whether targeted therapy is likely to be an effective treatment for your brain tumor.

Rehabilitation after treatment

Because brain tumors can develop in parts of the brain that control motor skills, speech, vision and thinking, rehabilitation may be a necessary part of recovery. Depending on your needs, your doctor may refer you to:

  • Physical therapy to help you regain lost motor skills or muscle strength
  • Occupational therapy to help you get back to your normal daily activities, including work, after a brain tumor or other illness
  • Speech therapy with specialists in speech difficulties (speech pathologists) to help if you have difficulty speaking
  • Tutoring for school-age children to help kids cope with changes in their memory and thinking after a brain tumor

Symptoms

The signs and symptoms of a brain tumor vary greatly and depend on the brain tumor’s size, location and rate of growth. General signs and symptoms caused by brain tumors may include:

  • New onset or change in pattern of headaches
  • Headaches that gradually become more frequent and more severe
  • Unexplained nausea or vomiting
  • Vision problems, such as blurred vision, double vision or loss of peripheral vision
  • Gradual loss of sensation or movement in an arm or a leg
  • Difficulty with balance
  • Speech difficulties
  • Feeling very tired
  • Confusion in everyday matters
  • Difficulty making decisions
  • Inability to follow simple commands
  • Personality or behavior changes
  • Seizures, especially in someone who doesn’t have a history of seizures
  • Hearing problems

Causes

Primary brain tumors originate in the brain itself or in tissues close to it, such as in the brain-covering membranes (meninges), cranial nerves, pituitary gland or pineal gland. It begins when normal cells develop changes (mutations) in their DNA. A cell’s DNA contains the instructions that tell a cell what to do. The mutations tell the cells to grow and divide rapidly and to continue living when healthy cells would die. The result is a mass of abnormal cells, which forms a tumor.

In adults, primary brain tumors are much less common than are secondary brain tumors, in which cancer begins elsewhere and spreads to the brain. Many different types of primary brain tumors exist. Each gets its name from the type of cells involved. Examples include:

  • Gliomas. These tumors begin in the brain or spinal cord and include astrocytomas, ependymomas, glioblastomas, oligoastrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas.
  • Meningiomas. A meningioma is a tumor that arises from the membranes that surround your brain and spinal cord (meninges). Most meningiomas are noncancerous.
  • Acoustic neuromas (schwannomas). These are benign tumors that develop on the nerves that control balance and hearing leading from your inner ear to your brain.
  • Pituitary adenomas. These are tumors that develop in the pituitary gland at the base of the brain. These tumors can affect the pituitary hormones with effects throughout the body.
  • Medulloblastomas. These cancerous brain tumors are most common in children, though they can occur at any age. A medulloblastoma starts in the lower back part of the brain and tends to spread through the spinal fluid.
  • Germ cell tumors. Germ cell tumors may develop during childhood where the testicles or ovaries will form. But sometimes germ cell tumors affect other parts of the body, such as the brain.
  • Craniopharyngiomas. These rare tumors start near the brain’s pituitary gland, which secretes hormones that control many body functions. As the craniopharyngioma slowly grows, it can affect the pituitary gland and other structures near the brain.

Risk factors

In most people with primary brain tumors, the cause of the tumor isn’t clear. But doctors have identified some factors that may increase your risk of a brain tumor. Risk factors include:

  • Exposure to radiation. People who have been exposed to a type of radiation called ionizing radiation have an increased risk of brain tumor. Examples of ionizing radiation include radiation therapy used to treat cancer and radiation exposure caused by atomic bombs.
  • Family history of brain tumors. A small portion of brain tumors occurs in people with a family history of brain tumors or a family history of genetic syndromes that increase the risk of brain tumors.
Deep brain stimulation

Deep brain stimulation

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) involves implanting electrodes within certain areas of the brain. These electrodes produce electrical impulses that regulate abnormal impulses. Or the electrical impulses can affect certain cells and chemicals within the brain.

The amount of stimulation in deep brain stimulation is controlled by a pacemaker-like device placed under the skin in your upper chest. A wire that travels under your skin connects this device to the electrodes in your brain.

Deep brain stimulation is commonly used to treat a number of conditions, such as:

  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Essential tremor
  • Dystonia
  • Epilepsy
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Deep brain stimulation is also being studied as a potential treatment for:

  • Tourette syndrome
  • Huntington’s disease and chorea
  • Chronic pain
  • Cluster headache

Why it’s done

Deep brain stimulation is an established treatment for people with movement disorders, such as essential tremor, Parkinson’s disease and dystonia, and psychiatric conditions, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder. It’s also approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration to reduce seizures in difficult-to-treat epilepsy.

This treatment is reserved for people whose symptoms aren’t controlled with medications.

RisksSurgery risks

Deep brain stimulation involves creating small holes in the skull to implant the electrodes into the brain tissue as well as performing surgery to implant the device that contains the batteries under the skin in the chest. Complications of surgery may include:

  • Misplacement of leads
  • Bleeding in the brain
  • Stroke
  • Infection
  • Breathing problems
  • Nausea
  • Heart problems
  • Seizure
  • Seizure
  • Infection
  • Headache
  • Confusion
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Stroke
  • Hardware complications, such as an eroded lead wire
  • Temporary pain and swelling at the implantation site

A few weeks after the surgery, the device will be turned on and the process of finding the best settings for you begins. Some settings may cause side effects, but these often improve with further adjustments of your device. Because there have been infrequent reports that the DBS therapy affects the movements needed for swimming, the Food and Drug Administration recommends consulting with your doctor and taking water safety precautions before swimming.

  • Numbness or tingling sensations
  • Muscle tightness of the face or arm
  • Speech problems
  • Balance problems
  • Light-headedness
  • Vision problems, such as double vision
  • Unwanted mood changes, such as anger and depression

How you prepare

Deep brain stimulation is a serious and potentially risky procedure. Even if you might be eligible for deep brain stimulation, you and your doctors must carefully weigh the risks and potential benefits of the procedure.

Before surgery, you’ll likely need medical tests to make sure that deep brain stimulation is a safe and appropriate option for you. You may also need brain-imaging studies, such as an MRI, before the surgery. These studies help to map the areas of your brain that will have the electrodes implanted.

What you can expectDuring the surgery

  • Brain surgery. For the brain surgery portion, your care team fits you with a special head frame to keep your head still during the procedure (stereotactic head frame). Then, team members use neuroimaging (brain MRI or CT) to map your brain and identify the area in your brain where they’ll place the electrodes.

In most cases, the electrodes will be placed while you’re awake and alert. This is to be sure the effects of stimulation can be tested fully. If you’re awake for surgery, you’ll be given a local aesthetic to numb your scalp before the procedure, but you won’t need an aesthetic in your brain itself because the brain has no pain receptors. In some cases, surgery can be done under general anaesthesia so that you’ll be unconscious.

Your surgeon implants a thin wire lead with a number of contacts (electrodes) at the tips into a specific area of your brain. Or one lead is implanted into each side of the brain (for a total of two leads). A wire runs under your skin to a pulse generator (neurostimulator) implanted near your collarbone.

During surgery, both the neurologist and the surgeon carefully monitor your brain to help ensure correct electrode placement.

  • Chest wall surgery. During the second portion of the surgery, the surgeon implants the part of the device that contains the batteries (pulse generator) under the skin in your chest, near your collarbone.

General anesthesia is used during this procedure. Wires from the brain electrodes are placed under your skin and guided down to the battery-operated pulse generator.

The generator is programmed to send continuous electrical pulses to your brain. You control the generator, and you can turn it on or off using a special remote control.

After the procedure

A few weeks after surgery, the pulse generator in your chest is activated in your doctor’s office. The doctor can easily program your pulse generator from outside your body using a special remote control. The amount of stimulation is customized to your condition, and may take as long as four to six months to find the optimal setting. Stimulation may be constant, 24 hours a day, or your doctor may advise you to turn your pulse generator off at night and back on in the morning, depending on your condition. You can turn stimulation on and off with a special remote control that you’ll take home with you. In some cases, your doctor may program the pulse generator to let you make minor adjustments at home.

The battery life of your generator varies with usage and settings. When the battery needs to be replaced, your surgeon will replace the generator during an outpatient procedure.

Results

Deep brain stimulation won’t cure your disease, but it may help lesser your symptoms. If deep brain stimulation works, your symptoms will improve significantly, but they usually don’t go away completely. In some cases, medications may still be needed for certain conditions.

Epilepsy Treatment

Advancements in Epilepsy Treatment

In recent years, a tremendous improvement in epilepsy diagnosis and treatment has been made to provide a seizure-free life, as well as to reduce a patient’s suffering arising from social discrimination, stigma, and misunderstandings.
To track possible seizure activities, wearable seizure detectors have been made. These devices are also helpful in preventing unexpected deaths in epilepsy caused by uncontrolled seizures.


To detect the source of seizures, many non-invasive techniques have been discovered that can directly target the brain region responsible for seizure onset. For example, in stereo-electroencephalography, thin electrodes are placed in the head to get information on brain activity, which can be used to point out the exact origin of seizure. Once the source is identified, various newly discovered techniques can be applied to effectively treat epilepsy. One such technique is responsive neurostimulation wherein a pacemaker-like device is implanted within the brain. The device evaluates the brain activity characteristics to detect the possibility of a seizure even before it happens and delivers electrical stimuli or drugs to inhibit the seizure. Similarly, a subthreshold stimulus can be applied continuously to a seizure-originating brain region to reduce the occurrence of seizures and improve a patient’s quality of life. In addition, some minimally invasive surgical options have been developed to avoid the risks of open-brain surgeries in epilepsy patients. One such method is stereotactic radiosurgery wherein radiation is applied to a specific seizure-originating brain region to destroy the tissue and improve seizure outcomes. Similarly, in MRI-guided laser ablation or laser interstitial thermal therapy, a small laser probe is inserted into the brain, and thermal energy is used to remove or destroy the brain tissue responsible for seizures. In vagus nerve stimulation, a device is implanted underneath the chest skin and electrical pulses are transmitted from the device to the vagus nerve through a wire to reduce the frequency of seizures.
Similarly, external nerve stimulation devices have been developed that can be placed externally, and thus, the surgical steps related to device implantation can be avoided.


Similar to surgical improvements, advancement in drug-based treatment has also been made. In this context, one recent study has identified a drug, usually prescribed for multiple sclerosis patients, which can be potentially applied to epilepsy patients to improve seizure outcomes. In the study, researchers have analysed the metabolic alterations associated with epilepsy to identify the genes that are responsible for maintaining metabolic homeostasis. They have identified a mitochondrial gene namely dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, which upon inhibition by the pharmacological intervention (multiple sclerosis medication) can stably inhibit neuronal activity in the brain. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, which plays a vital role in modulating metabolic changes caused by a ketogenic diet, has been found to act as a regulator of activity set points in the brain’s neural networks. It has also been found that pharmacological inhibition of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase reduces the synaptic transmission and neuronal firing rate in the hippocampus and improves the seizure outcomes by reducing calcium overload in the mitochondria.

PROSTATE CANCER TREATMENT IN INDIA

PROSTATE CANCER TREATMENT IN INDIA

The Prostate

The prostate is part of a reproductive system used by a man. It is located right in front of the rectum and below the bladder. It encircles the urethra, the tube from which flows urine. A walnut is about the size of a healthy prostate. The prostate is an integral part of seminal fluid. Seminal fluid helps carry sperm from the man’s body as a part of the semen during ejaculation.

Male hormones (androgens) make the prostate grow. The testicles are the main source of male hormones, including testosterone. The adrenal gland also makes testosterone but in small amounts.

If the prostate grows too large, it squeezes the urethra. This may slow or stop the flow of urine from the bladder to the penis.

PROSTATE CANCER

Confronting Prostate Cancer

One of the most common forms of cancer in people is prostate cancer. It usually affects men in their 60s, but is now also being found progressively in men of a lower age group. Common issues that occur in this gland include benign (non-cancerous) enlargement or prostate cancer. Older age, family history, and obesity are risk factors.

Prostate cancer is rising slowly and remains limited to the prostate initially. However, development is rapid in some cases and can spread rapidly to other organs. Early detection enables patients to choose between a range of treatment options, with excellent results. Treatment of prostate cancer includes a team of Medical, Radiation, and Uro-Oncology experts who are aligned to follow protocols of international standards.

Prostate Cancer Symptoms

  • Trouble urinating
  • Decreased force in the stream of urine
  • Blood in semen
  • Discomfort in the pelvic area
  • Bone pain
  • Erectile dysfunction

Having any of these symptoms does not mean it is cancer, but if one or more of them are noticed for more than two weeks then a doctor must be seen, and an immediate health screening is a must.

Prostate cancer sometimes does not cause symptoms until it is advanced. So regular tests are recommended with the Digital Rectal Exam (DRE) and the Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) examination. High levels of PSA may be predictive of cancer, infection, inflammation, or non-cancerous enlargement. For further examination, transrectal ultrasound is performed. The biopsied tissues are tested to determine the Gleason score for the degree of prostate cancer. The diagnosis is confirmed by bone scan, CT, MRI, or PET CT accompanied by Biopsy. Men diagnosed with prostate cancer in the early stages may not need treatment immediately. In only a few cases active surveillance is required.

DIAGNOSIS

  • The patient would require to undergo detailed Physical & clinical at evaluations which will include Blood Tests, DRE, and PSA.
  • Prostate cancer is diagnosed leading cancer hospitals in India through these methods:
  • Digital rectal exam (DRE): It helps detect lumps, asymmetries and the size of the prostate.

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA): It is a blood test that looks for a protein that the prostate generates.

TYPES OF PROSTATE CANCER

  • Acinar adenocarcinoma Adenocarcinomas are cancers that develop in the gland cells that line the prostate gland. They are the most common type of prostate cancer. Nearly everyone with prostate cancer has this type.
  • Ductal adenocarcinoma
    Ductal adenocarcinoma starts in the cells that line the ducts (tubes) of the prostate gland. It tends to grow and spread more quickly than acinar adenocarcinoma.
  • Transitional cell (or urothelial) cancer
    Transitional cell cancer of the prostate starts in the cells that line the tube carrying urine to the outside of the body (the urethra). This type of cancer usually starts in the bladder and spreads into the prostate
  • Squamous cell cancer
    These cancers develop from flat cells that cover the prostate. They tend to grow and spread more quickly than adenocarcinoma of the prostate.
  • Small cell prostate cancer

Risk Factors

No one knows the exact causes of prostate cancer. Doctors often cannot explain why one man develops prostate cancer and another does not. However, we do know that prostate cancer is not contagious. You cannot “catch” it from another person.

Research has shown that men with certain risk factors are more likely than others to develop prostate cancer. A risk factor is something that may increase the chance of developing a disease.

Studies have found the following risk factors for prostate cancer:

  • Age: Age is the main risk factor for prostate cancer. This disease is rare in men younger than 45. The chance of getting it goes up sharply as a man gets older. In the United States, most men with prostate cancer are older than 65.
  • Family history: A man’s risk is higher if his father or brother had prostate cancer.
  • Race: Prostate cancer is more common in African American men than in white men, including Hispanic white men. It is less common in Asian and American Indian men.
  • Certain prostate changes: Men with cells called high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) may be at increased risk for prostate cancer. These prostate cells look abnormal under a microscope.
  • Diet: Some studies suggest that men who eat a diet high in animal fat or meat may be at increased risk for prostate cancer. Men who eat a diet rich in fruits and vegetables may have a lower risk
  • Many of these risk factors can be avoided. Others, such as family history, cannot be avoided. You can help protect yourself by staying away from known risk factors whenever possible.

Scientists have also examined whether BPH, obesity, smoking, a sexually transmitted virus, or lack of exercise may raise the risk of prostate cancer. There are not strong risk factors at this time. Most research also did not find an elevated risk of prostate cancer for men who had a vasectomy. A vasectomy is a surgery to cut or tie off the tubes from the testicles that carry sperm.

Most men with known risk factors are not getting prostate cancer. On the other hand, people who do get the disease often have no known risk factors, except to grow older. When you think you may be at risk, speak to your doctor. Your doctor may be able to suggest ways to lower your risk and can plan a check-up schedule.

Screening

Your doctor will be able to check for prostate cancer before you experience any symptoms. Screening can help the doctors find cancer and treat it early. But studies so far have not shown that screening tests are reducing prostate cancer deaths. You may want to talk to your doctor about the potential benefits and harms that screening can bring. The decision to be screened, like many other medical decisions, is a personal one. You should decide after learning the pros and cons of screening.

Your doctor can explain more about these tests:

  • Digital rectal exam: The doctor inserts a lubricated, gloved finger into the rectum and feels the prostate through the rectal wall. The prostate is checked for hard or lumpy areas.
  • Blood test for prostate-specific antigen (PSA): A lab checks the level of PSA in a man’s blood sample. A high PSA level is commonly caused by BPH or prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate). Prostate cancer may also cause a high PSA level.

The digital rectal exam and PSA test can detect a problem in the prostate. They cannot show whether the problem is cancer or a less serious condition. Your doctor will use the results of these tests to help decide whether to check further for signs of cancer.

The treatment options include surgery or radiation therapy (radical prostatectomy). Extreme prostatectomy for prostate cancer includes removing a few lymph nodes, the prostate gland, and underlying tissue. The da Vinci Robotic Surgery System is used in some of the best cancer treatment facilities in the world for operations. Robotic prostatectomy allows the surgeon to make more precise movements with surgical tools as compared to traditional open or minimally invasive surgery.

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