The word "varicose" comes from the Latin root "varix," which means "twisted." Any vein may become varicose, but the veins most commonly affected are those in your legs and feet. That's because standing and walking upright increases the pressure in the veins in your lower body.
The veins of the legs are divided into two systems - the deep veins (which run deep to the leathery layer of fascia surrounding the muscles) and the superficial veins (which run in the layer of fat just beneath the skin). The superficial veins are the ones that you can see (for example, on your foot or around the ankle) and they are the ones that can become varicose. It is essential to keep in mind these two different systems - deep and superficial - in order to understand varicose veins and their treatment. In a number of places in the leg, the superficial and deep veins are linked by perforating veins (or 'perforators'). They are called perforators because they perforate the leathery fascial layer surrounding the muscles of the legs. Normally their valves should allow blood to flow only inwards - from the superficial veins to the deep veins. If the valves stop working properly, then blood is pushed out into the superficial veins when the muscles contract: this is one reason for high pressure in the superficial veins, and can be a cause of varicose veins.
This is done by general examination and Ultrasound Doppler study which can show the exact site of disease in the form of damaged valves & dilatation of veins. Till now various treatment options available for varicose veins were elevating the legs while lying down or sitting, bending legs occasionally when standing for a long period of time, Compression Stockings, Sclerotherapy for short segment disease. Vein Stripping Surgery is a major surgery where the recurrence rate is too high,cause ugly scar in legs and 2-3 weeks needed for recovery.
Compression Stockings For more severe varicose veins, your physician may prescribe compression stockings. Compression stockings are elastic stockings that squeeze your veins and stop excess blood from flowing backward. Compression stockings also can help heal skin sores and prevent them from returning.
Sclerotherapy This form of treatment is a non-surgical procedure in which a solution is injected into the problem varicose veins or spider veins in order to cause its disappearance. A chemical irritant can be injected into veins, although large veins are difficult to treat using this method, as the chemical has to physically come in contact with the lining of the target vein for long enough to destroy it. Sclerotherapy works by burning the lining of the vein, which causes the vessel to spasm and block off with clot. The idea is to make the vein shrivel away by scarring. Unfortunately, the clot often clears away, allowing the scarred vessel to open up again.
Endovenous Laser Treatment (EVLT) EVLT works by heating the inside of the vein, which causes it to seal shut and disappear. This treatment requires that a very thin laser fiber be inserted into the damaged underlying vein. Tiny electrodes at the tip of the catheter heat the walls of your varicose vein and destroy the vein tissue. As with chemical sclerotherapy, your vein is then no longer able to carry blood, breaks up naturally, and is absorbed by your body.
Radiofrequency Occlusion This method treats the vein by heating them, causing the vein to contract and then close.
Laser and Pulsed Light Treatments This form of vein therapy involves a light beam that is pulsed onto the veins in order to seal them off, causing them to dissolve. Successful light-based treatment requires adequate heating of the veins. Several treatments are usually needed for optimal results.
Ambulatory Phlebectomy This procedure involves making tiny punctures or incisions through which the varicose veins are removed. The incisions are so small no stitches are required.
Vascular surgery treats diseases of the arteries and veins. Most vascular surgeries are minimally invasive and address a number of vascular conditions and diseases. Here are some different types of vascular surgery.
It is less risky as compared to surgery.
No Surgical scar on skin.
No blood loss or risk of blood transfusion.
The recovery is very fast as compared to traditional surgery.
The recurrence rate is very low as compared to conventional surgery.
Normal activities like long distance walking, running, standing can be resumed within 1-2 days.
Note: Treatment Options/Results may vary from patient to patient depending on their medical condition.