Thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland in your neck, just above your collarbone. It is one of your endocrine glands, which make hormones. Thyroid hormones control the rate of many activities in your body. These include how fast you burn calories and how fast your heart beats. All of these activities are your body's metabolism. If your thyroid gland is not active enough, it is called hypothyroidism. It can make you gain weight, feel fatigued, and have difficulty dealing with cold temperatures.
If your thyroid is too active, it makes more thyroid hormones than your body needs. That condition is called hyperthyroidism. Too much thyroid hormone can make you lose weight, speed up your heart rate, and make you very sensitive to heat.There are many causes for both conditions. Treatment involves trying to reset your body's metabolism to a normal rate. The thyroid gland can also develop cancer.
Hypothyroidism This disorder attacks women more than men. Hypothyroidism results from under-active thyroid gland which results in less production of thyroid hormones that leads to lots of weight gain, hypertension and other problems. This is a very common disease which occurs in many children and aged people.
Hyperthyroidism Hyperthyroidism results from over active the thyroid glands which result in increased production of thyroid hormones which leads to over stimulation (weight loss, tension, anxiety and others).
Postpartum Thyroiditis After giving birth to a baby, a female’s thyroid glands may swell and turn larger in size. This type growth of glands to a very large extent is due to Postpartum Thyroiditis.
Thyroid Cancer Thyroid cancer is also of many types. This is due to the lump. Once you are affected by thyroid cancer, surgery is the only option.
A thyroidectomy is an operation to remove all, or part, of your thyroid gland. If all of your thyroid gland is removed, it's called a total thyroidectomy. If only part of it is removed, it's called a partial thyroidectomy, a sub-total thyroidectomy or a lobectomy. A thyroidectomy is used to treat several conditions, including:
an overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism) – a condition where your thyroid gland produces and releases excess hormones
an enlarged thyroid gland (goitre)
cancer of your thyroid gland
a cyst or benign (non-cancerous) lump on your thyroid gland
Total Thyroidectomy It is the most common of type of thyroid surgeries. With this surgery the entire gland is removed. Surgery of this type is most often used on the aggressive types of thyroid cancers such as medullary and anaplastic. It is also used in the treatment of uncontrollable hyperthyroidism/Graves’ and for goitres. When papillary and follicular thyroid cancer cells are found in both lobes a total thyroidectomy will be performed.
Partial/Subtotal Thyroidectomy It is the operation where only a portion of the gland is removed. Occasionally the isthmus and a piece of the second lobe may also be removed. This operation is used in small and non-aggressive thyroid cancers such as papillary and follicular. The thyroid cancer is contained to one lobe only.
Minimally invasive thyroid surgery is performed through a small 2-3cm keyhole incision placed directly over the enlarged thyroid nodule. It is generally suitable for patients with small thyroid nodules, less then 3cm in maximum diameter. Through the small incision the surgeon removes the thyroid nodules as well as the surrounding thyroid gland, taking great care not to injure the nearby nerves. The skin incision is closed and many patients can go home after an overnight stay in hospital.
This technique allows the surgeon to see inside the patient’s body and operate through a much smaller incision than would otherwise be required for traditional open surgery.
Compared Open Surgery with Minimally Invasive Thyroid Surgery can have the following potential benefits
Faster recovery time and return to normal activities.
Small incision and local anesthesia
Decreased chances for complications
Less bleeding and postoperative pain
Fewer and/or smaller scars
Minimal blood loss.
Note: Treatment Options/Results may vary from patient to patient depending on their medical condition.