ANGIOPLASTY

Angioplasty (or balloon angioplasty) is an endovascular procedure to widen narrowed or obstructed arteries or veins, typically to treat arterial atherosclerosis.

Advanced Interventional Cardiology Procedures at Best Hospitals in India

Angioplasty, Stenting, Interventional Cardilogy Treatments for Blocked Heart Blood Vessels
Angioplasty

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Angioplasty

Why is a Angioplasty Done ?

Deposition of fatty substances in the coronary arteries (arteries supplying blood to the heart), develops a blockage. This condition is called as ‘coronary artery disease’ (CAD). This blockage creates a problem in the free flow of the blood to your heart muscle. This situation might lead to a heart attack. Angioplasty is a widely performed procedure that is used to treat heart problems caused by blocked or narrowed coronary arteries (blood vessels that supply blood to the heart muscle). This procedure is performed highly successfully by interventional cardiologists at heart hospitals in India. The coronary angioplasty, which normally takes between one to two hours, aims to remove or reduce blockages in the coronary arteries and restore blood flow to the heart muscle. The coronary angioplasty procedure is performed in a Cardiac Catheterisation Lab . All cardiac speciality hospitals in India as well as most of multi-speciality hospitals in India are equipped with Cath Labs

Procedure

Angioplasty procedure involves insertion of catheter in your groin and hence before the angioplasty procedure you would be given a mild sedative and some pain killers to ensure that you remain relaxed during the procedure. Your doctor will insert a catheter into an artery in your groin and gently manoeuvre it to the heart. This catheter has a balloon at the tip and once the catheter reaches the site of the blockage, the balloon on the end is inflated. This opens the blockage and restores the proper flow of the blood to the heart. Often the device which is called a stent is also placed at the site of blockage in order to keep the artery open.

A stent is a small, mesh like metallic device, which when placed at the site of blockage acts as a support to keep the artery open thus maintaining the blood flow. Two main varieties of stents are used. The first is a non medicated or bare stents and the second is medicated or drug eluting stents. Both the stents serve the function of supporting the open artery. The medicated stent in addition releases drug locally at the treated site to reduce the chances of recurrence of blockage at the same site.


Advanced International Cardiology Procedures for Treatment of Heart Diseases

Balloon Angioplasty

Balloon angioplasty is a medical procedure that is performed to open up arteries that have been narrowed by plaque. Balloon angioplasty is a safe and commonly performed procedure, and is now considered standard PAD treatment. For many types of PAD, a balloon angioplasty procedure has replaced a standard surgical procedure as first line treatment. The principle of balloon angioplasty is to insert a small balloon into a narrowed section of an artery where the balloon is inflated, opening up the artery and improving blood flow. The illustration below demonstrates the inflation of an angioplasty balloon, which will lead to the widening of the artery.

Stents

Stenting is a minimally invasive procedure during which a stent and balloon are used together to push back plaque deposits inside of a coronary artery to treat heart disease. Stents have been used to treat coronary artery disease (CAD) for more than a decade. It is now common practice to insert a stent to hold a coronary artery open and to maintain blood flow after an angioplasty A coronary stent is a tiny, expandable mesh tube made of medical-grade stainless steel or cobalt alloy metal. Stents can aid in the reduction of recurrent blockage or narrowing after an angioplasty procedure. Once the stent is implanted, it will remain in your artery permanently.

Rotablation (Percutaneous Transluminal Rotational Atherectomy or PTRA)

Rotational atherectomy involves the excavation of plaque in a manner similar to that achieved by a dental drill, which can bore into enamel but leaves the pulp unharmed. Based on the theory of differential cutting, rotational atherectomy cuts inelastic atherosclerotic tissue inside coronary arteries and retains the integrity of the elastic artery wall. Rotary ablation attacks hard or calcified atherosclerotic plaque, which is not able to deflect, and produces microfissures at the zone of contact with the burr.

Drug-Eluting Stents

In addition to providing structural support to the coronary artery, some newer-generation stents also have a medicated coating to help prevent the vessel from renarrowing. Both bare metal and drug-eluting stents can effectively reopen coronary arteries.However, depending on individual patient characteristics, a doctor may use a drug-eluting stent (DES), which is much more effective at keeping the artery open over time.

Angioplasty vs. Bypass Surgery

It is not easy for a patient to make a choice between angioplasty and bypass surgery on his own, which happens due to various factors like the condition of the disease in an individual. The doctor also checks the symptoms of the patient along with his overall heart function and co-existing medical conditions.

In case the narrowing in the arteries is serious about reducing the blood flow in the heart of the patient then angioplasty is recommended. But if the patient has various blockages, bypass surgery is certainly better.

Note: Treatment Options/Results may vary from patient to patient depending on their medical condition.

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